15284403998

速解托福阅读句子简化题

作者: 2020-10-23 14:19 来源:昆明编辑
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托福阅读句子简化题的核心在于抓住题干的要求


Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways to leave out essential information.
正确选项能够表达原句最核心的意思(essential information),一些细节信息可能会被删除。
错误选项有两个特点,一是对原句的意思做出重大改变(change the meaning in important ways),比如添加了原句没有的信息或逻辑关系;二是遗漏重要信息(leave out essential information) 如原句包含两个要点,选项中只保留了一个。
句子简化题一般的步骤是:
1. 划分原句的句子成分,提取句子主干   
2. 看原句包含几个要点,几个要点之间的逻辑关系是什么 (例如并列,因果,让步等) 
3. 对比选项,选择表达原句核心含义的答案,同时排除错误选项。

平常不限时练习的可以按照上面的步骤,多做长难句的拆解分析和翻译,这样能很好地提升我们的阅读能力。限时练习或者考试的时候可以根据题目的特点快速解题,节省时间。例如下面两个例题。


  1. TPO9 Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coat


Fladmark's hypothesis received additional support from the fact that the greatest diversity in native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americas, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest.
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways to leave out essential information.
A.   Because this region has been settled the longest, it also displays the greatest diversity in Native American languages.
B.   Fladmark's hypothesis states that the west coast of the Americas has been settled longer than any other region.
C.   The fact that the greatest diversity of Native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americans lends strength to Fladmark’s hypothesis.
D.   According to Fladmark, Native American languages have survived the longest along the west coast of the Americas.
这道题能够体现快速划分句子成分对完成句子简化题的重要性。同位语从句通常由抽象名词(如fact, theory, idea, phenomenon等)+ that/ whether等引导词构成。阅读时同位语的具体内容可以先省略不看,提取句子的主干成分,即高亮部分, Fladmark's hypothesis received additional support from the fact that the greatest diversity in native American languages occurs along the west coast of the Americas, suggesting that this region has been settled the longest. 句子主干的意思是:事实给Fladmark的理论提供了证据。正确选项至少应该包含这层意思,可以快速找到C选项中 the fact lends strengths to Fladmark’s hypothesis, 和原句的意思相同,而其他选项没有出现和原句“support”类似的概念,因此可以快速解题,锁定答案C。

2   TPO 32 Distributions of Tropical Bee Colonies
The number of colonies in the study area was not limited by availability of suitable trees, and a clumped or regular distribution of colonies was not due to an underlying clumped or regular distribution of potential nest sites.
Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways to leave out essential information.
A.   The limited number of colonies was not due to the distribution or availability of potential nesting sites.
B.   There was no lack of suitable trees or potential nesting sites in the study area.
C.   The number of nests was directly related to the number or the distribution of suitable trees.
D.   Neither the number nor the distribution of colonies could be explained by the availability of suitable nest sites.
这道题能很好地体现句子简化题中经常出现的并列逻辑。首先找出原文中表示并列关系的连接词,如and, as well as, or, not only, but also,either or, neither nor 等,然后分清楚并列对象。正确答案中应该能包含两个主要的并列内容(一些细节内容可能会省略)。
The number of colonies in the study area was not limited by availability of suitable trees, and a clumped or regular distribution of colonies was not due to an underlying clumped or regular distribution of potential nest sites.
找出题目中的and和or并列的对象,可以梳理出原句的结构为:
微信图片_20201023141824.jpg



在上图结构中,第二级并列关系(clumped sites/regular sites)可能在简化后被剔除,因为信息相对次要。简化后的句子不能改变原句的意思,也不能省略重要信息。因此正确选项应该包含两个主要的并列内容 number 和 distribution。D选项的neither the number nor the distribution 正好通过连接词neither…nor… 并列了句子的讨论对象,并且意思是“蜜蜂群落的数量和分布模式不受树的影响”,和原句意思相同,因此是正确答案。

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